REFRIGERATOR & FREEZER SETTINGS:
Ideal Freezer Temperature: From 0°F to 3°F
Ice cream will start to soften between 6°F and 10°F (great for serving, but not for longer storage).
Ideal Refrigerator Temperature: Between 35°F and 38°F
USUAL RECIPE ABBREVIATIONS:
t = 1 teaspoon
T = 1 Tablespoon
c = 1 cup
oz = 1 ounce
TABLE OF MEASUREMENTS:
3 t = 1T
2T 1 oz 1/8 c
4T 2 oz 1/4 c
5T 2-1/2 oz 3/8 c
5T+1t 2-2/3 oz 1/3 c
8T 4 oz 1/2 c
10T 5 oz 5/8 c
10T+2t 5-1/3 oz 2/3 c
12T 6 oz 3/4 c
16T 8 oz 1 c
1 c = 1/2 pint
2 c = 1 pint
4 c = 1 quartt
16 c = 1 gallon
4 qt = 1 gallon
2 pt = 1 quartt
1 cup = 8 ounces
4 cups = 1 quart
4 quarts = 1 gallon
16 cups = 1 gallon
2 cups = 1/8 gallon
8 oz. – 1 cup
10-1/2 oz. – 1-1/4 cups
12 oz. – 1-1/2 cups
14-16 oz. – 1-3/4 c
#300 can – 16-17 oz. – 2 cups
#303 can – 1 lb. 4 oz. – 2-1/2 cups
#2 can – 1 lb. 13 oz. – 3-1/2 cups
#2-1/2 can – 46 oz – 5-3/4 cups
# 10 can – 6-bls 6 oz – 13 cups
16 salted crackers =1 c coarse crumbs
20-22 salted crackers =1 c fine crumbs
15 graham crackers =1 c fine crumbs
22 vanilla wafers =1 c fine crumbs
2 slices bread =1 c soft bread cubes
1 slice bread toasted =1/4c dry breadcrumbs
1 slice bread =1/2c soft bread crumbs
1 sq. (1 oz.) unsweetened chocolate = 3T cocoa, + 1T oleo or shortening
1 oz. cocoa = 3T or 1/4 c
1 lb cocoa = 4 cups
1 oz. unsweetened choc = 3T carob powder+2T water
In slightly warm oven, soften about 3 squares of semisweet chocolate.
With vegetable parer/peeler, shave into curls.
1 lb flour = 4 cups
1 lb cake flour = 5 cups
1 c cake flour = 7/8 c all-purpose flour 1 c minus 2T cake flour 1 c +2T cake flour = 1 cup all purpose flour
1 c self rising flour = 1-1/4 t baking powder, ½ t salt and 1 c all-purpose flour
1 lb brown sugar = 2-1/4 to 2-2/3c (1 box)
1 lb powdered sugar = 3-1/2 c (1 box)
1 c granulated sugar = 1-3/4 c powdered sugar
1 T cornstarch = 2 T flour (for thickening)
2t arrowroot = 1 T cornstarch (thickening)
1 t baking powder = 1/4 t baking soda +1/2 t cream of tarter
1/2 t soda = 2 t baking powder
1 lb meal – 2-1/2 to 3cups
Baking Powder is combination of soda, cream of tarter and cornstarch.
The main ingredient is cream of tarter. It first came out pre-mixed in 1855.
Cream of Tarter is not a synthetic chemical. It is made from a natural fruit acid obtained from fine, ripe grapes, combined with Tartartic Acid (also derived from fruits). As soon as liquid is added, both these acids act immediately on the soda.
Because it works best when in contact with liquid, it’s a good idea to FIRST dissolve your baking powder in a small amount of warm liquid before adding the other recipe ingredients. If the recipe calls for 2t tsp baking powder, first dissolve it in 2T of warm liquid called for in the recipe, and then add to the batter or liquids called for in recipe.
Most recipes will say to sift baking powder together with the dry ingredients-but Gloria Pitzer’s testing showed the best way to produce excellent results is to add the baking powder dissolved in WARM LIQUID with the water/milk/liquid required by recipe.
BISQUICK: One cup of Bisquick can be substituted with a mixture of 1c flour, 1½ t baking powder, ½ t salt, and 2-1/2 T oil or melted butter (or by cutting in 2-1/2 T shortening).
DAIRY PRODUCTS & EGGS
1 cup egg whites = 8-10 eggs; 12-14 egg yolks = 1 cup
3-4 eggs = 1 cup
1/2 c evaporated milk + 1/2 c water = 1 cup milk
1 small can (5.33 oz.) evaporated milk = 2/3 cup
1 cup cream = 2 cups cream, whipped
1 c Sour Milk or 1 c buttermilk = 1-1/2 T vinegar (or lemon juice) + enough regular milk to make 1 cup. Let stand 5 min or so while it curdles.
1 lb butter = 2 cups; 2T = 1 oz.; 1/2 cup = 1 stick; 1 cup = 2 sticks
1 oz. grated cheese = 1/4 cup
l lb shredded cheese = 4 cups
1 lb cottage cheese = 2 cups
8 oz. sour cream = 1 cup
8 oz. cream cheese = 1 cup; 3 oz. cream cheese = 6 T
To soften Cream Cheese, remove wrapper and microwave on HIGH for 30 seconds.
COLD WATER TEST
(Used in making cooked candy, when you don’t have a thermometer)
234°F Soft Ball Stage Shapes into ball, but flattens out
244°F Firm Ball Stage Holds shape until pressed
250°F Hard Ball Stage Hard, Firm ball
265°F Soft Crack Stage Separates into threads, but is not brittle
290°F Hard Crack Stage Separates into hard and brittle threads
SEASONING NEW CAST IRON: Wash and dry skillet; then rub inside with vegetable oil or shortening; heat for several hours on top of range at low temperature, or in oven at 250-300°. Re-season when necessary
Prove yeast is still good by dissolving it in warm water ca called for in recipe. Stir in 1 T flour and pinch sugar. It is active and ready if it begins to foam and increase in volume in 8 min; the yeast cells spurred on by the sugar are feeding on the flour.
COOKING WINE TIPS
Do NOT use “cooking wine.” Has lots of salt in it and isn’t really wine.
Dry = puckers your mouth – NOT sweet
Types of Dry Red Wine: (Nothing aged in Oak!)
Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Burgundy, Pinot Noir, Syrah, Chardonnay and Cabernet, Australian brand Lindemans
Type of Dry White Wines: Chenin Blanc or Sauvignon Blanc.
Noilly Prat is good for white wine in recipes. Store bottle with your oils & vinegars–does not go bad.
TIP: Keep small bottles in six-packs (187 ml each, which is 1/4 of a standard bottle) on hand for things that call for only a few ounces of wine.
TIP: Supermarkets carry little four-paks of Sutter Home bottles of wine – red and white – the bottles contain aprox. 1 cup each. Easy to keep on hand for small amounts